06 April 2014

What Is Computer

What Is Computer

Computer is one thing that can not be separated from the life of modern society. However, any computer that surely? In simple terms, the computer can be understood as an electronic thing that is the result of a merger of the various components of copying work under the coordination and control of the program so that it can function properly to receive and process data.

Initially the computer is a tool that is used to process data in accordance with the procedures that have been formulated. Globally, the computer is a tool that is used as a data processor for generating an information.

The word computer is derived from the Latin Computare, which means counting. In English is called to compute. By definition, the computer interpreted as a set of electronic tools that work together, can receive data (input), process data (process) and provide information (output) as well as under the coordinated control program stored in its memory. So how can we describe the computer as follows:



What Is Computer


The Parts of a Computer:
1. Input Device, is a computer hardware devices that function to enter data into the computer's memory, like the keyboard, mouse, joystick, and others.

2. Processor, the main computer is a device that manages all activities of the computer itself. The processor consists of two main parts, namely;

  • Control Unit (CU), a major component of the processor that controls all the devices installed on the computer, ranging from input devices to output devices. 
  • Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), is part of a special processor processing the data arithmetic (addition, subtraction, etc.) as well as data logic (comparison).
3. Memory is a computer data storage media. This memory is divided into two kinds, namely;
a. Read Only Memory (ROM), which is memory that can only be read only, can not be modified and deleted and already filled by the computer manufacturer. The contents of ROM is required when the computer is turned on. Existing orders in the ROM portion will be transferred to the RAM. Command that is in ROM include the command to read from the disk operating system, the command to check all the equipment in the system unit and a command to display a message on the screen. ROM contents will not be lost even if there is no power. But at the present time the ROM has been developed and its kind al;

  • PROM (Programable ROM), the ROM program that we can only be returned with a note of the time change after it can no longer be programmed. 
  • RPROM (Re-Programable ROM), an outgrowth of the PROM version where we can make changes repeatedly as desired. 
  • EPROM (Erasable Program ROM), a ROM that we can remove and re-program, but a way to eliminate it by using ultraviolet light. 
  • EEPROM (Electrically Erasable ROM Program), the latest development of the ROM in which we can modify and delete the ROM program using electrical techniques. This EEPROM is the type most widely used today.

b. Random Access Memory (RAM), from whose name we can interpret that the RAM is memory that can be accessed randomly. RAM is used to store the programs that we though for a time (power on). If we turn off the computer, all data stored in RAM is lost. The purpose of this RAM is speed up processing the data on the computer. For the data we created can not be lost when the computer is turned off, it would require an external storage media, such as diskettes, hard drive, PCMCIA card and others.

4. Output Device, is a computer device that is useful for producing output, whether it is on paper (hard copy), to monitor (soft copy) or sound output. For example, a printer, speakers, plotters, monitors and others.

From the above we can conclude that the principle of the computer work begins entering data from an input device, then the data is processed by the CPU in such a way as we want and the data that have been processed had been stored in computer memory or disk. The stored data can we see the result through the output device.

COMPUTER COMPONENTS
Computer consists of three main components which can not be separated, ie

1. Hardware, is the physical equipment of a computer that we can see and feel. The hardware consists of:
a. Input / Output Devices (I / O Device)
Consists of input and output devices, such as keyboards and printers. (see sub menu peripherals)
b. Storage Device (storage devices)
Is a medium to store data such as floppy disks, hard disks, CD-I, etc..
c. Monitor / Screen
Monitor is a tool to show what we type on the keyboard after being processed by the processor. The monitor is also called the Visual Display Unit (VDU).
d. Unit casing
The casing of the unit is where all the computer equipment, whether it is the motherboard, cards, other peripherals and Central Processing Unit (CPU). The casing of this unit is also called the system unit.
e. Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Central Processing Unit is one of the most important parts of a computer, because the type of processor also determines the type of computer. Whether or not a computer, type of computer, computer prices, determined largely by the type of processor. Increasingly sophisticated computer processor, the ability will get better and usually the price will be more expensive.

2. Software (software), a computer program that allows you to perform a job according to your choice. The program is written in a special language that is understandable by computers.

The software consists of several types, namely;
a. Operating systems, such as DOS, Unix, Novell, OS / 2, Windows, etc..
Is software that works for the entire device is installed on each computer that can communicate with each other. Without the operating system, the computer can not function at all.

b. Utility programs, such as Norton Utility, Scandisk, PC Tools, etc..
Utility program serves to assist or fill shortages / weakness of operating systems, such as PC Tools can perform as DOS format command, but PC Tools is able to provide information and good animation in the process of formatting. Files that have been deleted by DOS can not be restored again but with the auxiliary program this can be done.

c. Application programs, such as GL, MYOB, Payroll, etc..
Is a special program that perform a specific job, such as the salaries in a company. Then this program is only used by the finance department alone can not be used by other departments. Usually the application program created by a computer programmer in accordance with the demand / need somebody / institutions / companies for internal purposes.

d. Package programs, such as MS-Word, MS-Excel, Lotus 125, etc.
Program is structured so that it can be used by many people with different interests. Such as MS-Word, can be used by the finance department to make the memorandum, or the administration to create a sales letter and so forth.

e. Programming languages​​, Pascal, Fortran, Clipper, dBase, etc..
Is software that is specifically used to create a computer program, whether it is the operating system, programs etc package. This programming language is usually divided into three levels, namely;
- Low Level Language, the programming language of the first generation, this type of programming language is very difficult to understand because it uses machine language instructions. Usually only the author understands it.

- Middle Level Language, is a middle-level programming language in which the instructions are approaching the use of everyday language, although it is still difficult to understand for many uses abbreviations such as STO means to save (short STORE) and MOV means to move (short for MOVE) . Are classified into this language is Assembler, Fortran (Formula Translator).

- High Level Language, a high-level language which has the characteristics of easy to understand, because it uses everyday language, such as BASIC, COBOL, dBase etc..

3. Brainware (user), are the personnel directly involved in the use of computers, such as systems analysts, programmers, operators, users, etc.. In large organizations, the problem is usually handled by computerized special section known as the part of IT (Informatics Technology), or often called the IT department, which is headed by an IT Manager.

ENHANCEMENTS (peripheral)
     To improve the performance of your computer, then the computer must insert additional devices mounted on the motherboard, especially the part in charge of receiving the additional equipment (expansion slots). Examples of useful peripherals Ethernet card to connect a PC to another PC. Example of one model of the ethernet card as shown.



Many other periferal able to increase the ability of the computer into another machine. For more details see the following table.


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