From year to year, the beginning of the month of Ramadan and Eid-ul-Fitr is always advanced an average of 11 days from the previous year. In 2009, the beginning of Ramadan falls on August 22 this year and Ramadan begins August 11. Next year, 1 Ramadan is expected to coincide with the date of August 1.
Hijri calendar system on the calendar based on the moon phase changes, moon sighting of the new moon or a thin crescent moon to the next. A new moon period is equal to the synodic period of the Moon, the length of 29.5306 days.
Different from the Gregorian calendar used throughout the world for the benefit of the administration, the Moon calendar is generally used for religious rituals and traditions. The second calendar, the year is equally composed of 12 months. One year has 12 Hijri month synodic period or 354.366 days. Rounded be 354 days or 355 days for leap years.
Gregorian calendar is based on the circulation of the Earth around the Sun from a certain point called the solstice or equinox back to that point. Long journey around the Sun Earth 365.2422 days is called tropical year, rounded up to 365 days or 366 days for leap years.
The difference in the number of days in the year AD Hijri and worship led to the implementation of Ramadan, Eid Fitr, Eid al-Adha and always ahead 10-12 days from the previous year. The difference 10 days ahead occur if the Hijri calendar is a leap year and the solar year is the year of his regular or basit years (short). While the difference in 12-day advance occurs if the Hijri year of his ordinary year and the solar year of his including leap year.
Moon Calendar Vs Sun Calendar
Moon CalendarAccording to researchers and teachers Bosscha Systems Graduate Program Astronomy Calendar, Moon calendar system is widely used because it is consistent and regular. Moon phase occurs over and over: the new moon crescent-young-month initial half-moon half-moon late-month-old crescent moon die and return periodically to the new moon. "Changes in the Moon's face on a regular basis in the night sky that our ancestors are recorded and created the calendar month," he said.
The system uses the Moon as a reference calendar called Moon calendar (lunar calendar/ qamariyah). Calendar Japan also uses the periodicity of the appearance of the Moon.
Calendar using the Sun as a benchmark, the Gregorian calendar or the Christian calendar or Sun calendar (Solar / Syamsiyah). While the Chinese calendar and the Jewish calendar system combines the Sun and the Moon together or using the Sun-Moon calendar system (Luni-Solar).
Moon Calendar simpler than the Sun calendar. Before you set as the Hijri calendar, Arabs and Muslims in the time of Prophet Muhammad have been using this system, but have not been standardized.
Sun CalendarGregorian calendar Julian calendar system developed from the time of Julius Caesar in 45 years before Christ. In this calendar, one year exactly 365.25 days, rounded to 365 days. Every four years, the number of days to 366 days is called a leap year.
Go forward one day
However, the actual length of the tropical year is 365.2422 days. As a result, every 128 years the Julian calendar forward one day than I should. That resulted in the resignation of Easter time. According to the provisions, Easter falls on the first Sunday after the first full moon after the sun is at the vernal equinox point-point-spring on March 21.
To overcome it, the point of the spring must be returned to the right on March 21. Thus, there should be a reduction in days on the Christian calendar. In 1582 perform the correction. With reference to the Council of Nicaea that set point spring on March 21, 325, then to restore March 21, 1582 right at the point of the spring, the number of days in that year should be pruned 10 days. As a result, after the date of October 4, 1582 immediately jumped into on October 15, 1582 That is, on 5-14 October 1582 never existed.
Correction was also made to the length of the tropical year Julian calendar. Repair was filed physicist from Naples, Aloysius Lilius, using the length of the period of the tropical year is 365.2425 days.
Repairs also carried out on a leap year, the year is divisible by four, and the year is divisible by 400 However, years divisible by 100 are not leap years are called.
This system was adopted Pope Gregory XIII. That's why it's called a Gregorian calendar system-which is now the most widely used for the benefit of public administration around the world until now.