22 October 2014

RAM (Random Access Memory)

RAM (Random Access Memory) is the memory that can be used as data storage and programs while when used by the processor. If the computer or the power is turned off, the data and programs in RAM will be lost (volatile). RAM data read speed is faster than the hard drive. RAM is a type of computer storage whose contents can be accessed in a fixed time not considering the location of the data in memory.

RAM data can be read and written (read / write) randomly (random) by the user, because the computer is writing data to the memory randomly. At this time most of the RAM chip that contains a form of the transistors in the circuit Flip Flop, called Metal Oxide Semiconductor RAM (MOSRAM), previous technology shaped Card. There are two types of MOSRAM, the static RAM and dynamic RAM. In dynamic RAM capacity such as capacitors increasingly lost his memory, to prevent this from every memory location must be refreshed (refresh) every two milliseconds to read and write again. As with the static RAM does not need to do a refresh.

RAM (Random Access Memory), Definition, Types, Funtion Of RAM

RAM (Random-Access Memory) is a type of memory that can be changed while the computer is turned on, and as a data storage that can be read or written and can be done repeatedly with different data. This type of memory is a type of volatile (volatile), the stored data will be lost if the power supply is turned off. For this reason, the main program never stored in RAM. Random means that the data stored in RAM can be accessed randomly.

RAM is divided into two types, ie the type of static and dynamic types. Static RAM to store one bit of information in a flip-flop. This type of RAM asynchronously, and does not require a clock signal. Static RAM is typically used for applications that do not require a large memory capacity RAM. Dynamic RAM to store one bit of information as the data payload. Dynamic RAM using the gate capacitance of a MOS transistor substrate as an elementary memory cell. To keep the data stored dynamic RAM intact, the data must be refreshed by reading and writing data to the memory. Dynamic RAM is used for applications that require large-capacity RAM, for example, in a personal computer (PC).

Function Of RAM (Random Access Memory)

RAM functions as a memory or a temporary data storage. RAM is a component used in devices for storage purposes. Memory works by storing and supplying the necessary data processor very quickly to be processed into information. Data stored in RAM is read in spurts.

Types of RAM (Random Access Memory)

Basically classified RAM chips. Into two main types, namely:
  • Static RAM or SRAM
  • Dynamis RAM or DRAM
Types of RAM are named according to the technology in use. Under these sorts of RAM, and an extension of the term adapted to the technology.
  1. SDRAM – Synchronous Dynamic Random-Access Memory
  2. DDR SDRAM – Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random-Access-Memory
  3. DDR2 SDRAM – Double Data Rate Type Two Synchronous Dynamic Random-Access Memory
  4. DDR3 SDRAM – Double Data Rate Type Three Synchronous Dynamic Random-Access Memory
  5. DDR4 SDRAM – Double Data Rate Type Four Synchronous Dynamic Random-Access Memory
  6. DRDRAM – Direct Rambus Dynamic Random-Access Memory
  7. PSRAM – Pseudostatic Random-Access Memory
  8. RLDRAM – Reduced-Latency Dynamic Random-Access Memory
  9. EDO DRAM – Extended Data Out Dynamic Random-Access Memory
  10. SGRAM – Synchronous Graphics Random-Access Memory
  11. FPM DRAM – Fast Page Mode Dynamic Random-Access Memory

SRAM (Static Random Access Memory)

Main Article: SRAM (Static RAM)

Function Of SRAM (Static RAM)

Static RAM or SRAM functions, to store data in bits using a bistable flip-flop. After the data is written in the SRAM, the data is stored and does not need to be refreshed as often as other types of RAM. There are three modes in which the cell operates in storing data in the SRAM, which is idle, Reading and Writing. Unlike DRAM, SRAM does not consume more power. Types of Static RAM is distinguished by: Data storage and Transistors

Types of Static RAM based Storage Data:

  • Non-volatile SRAM: Data is stored, even when the power is turned off, so that important information is guaranteed safe
  • Asynchronous SRAM: Data can be stored in the range of 4KB to 64 Mb. Fast access time, are the main characteristics of Asynchronous SRAM, and is therefore used as the main memory component in most electronic devices and embedded systems.

Types of Static RAM based transistors

  • Bipolar Junction Transistor: Transistors used in device-Transistor Logic (TTL) and Emitter-Coupled Logic (ECL), using a lot of power but it works very fast
  • Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET): used in the application of technology-based Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS).

Types of Static RAM based Features

  • Quad Data Rate SRAM: In one complete clock cycle, two words of data transferred. Discrete I / O bus (which connects all network devices and computer chips) is used to read and write data.
  • DDR SRAM: General I / O bus is used for data transfer and a single clock is used to control the input and output data.

Types of Static RAM based Flip-Flop

  • SRAM binary: transistor consists of a mask and a latch.
  • SRAM ternary: designed to use 8 or 14 transistor transistor.

The use of SRAM:

  • Computers
  • Microprocessor
  • Digital Signal Processing (DSP) circuitry
  • The LCD screen and printer
  • Hard disk and router buffers
  • Digital camera
  • Synthesizer
  • Mobile

DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory)

Main Article : DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory)

Function Of DRAM (Dynamic RAM)

Dynamic RAM main function is to assist in providing data processor very quickly ". RAM functions just like Digital HDD, Dynamic RAM because all the components are already digital technology. With Dynamic RAM, the processor does not need to wait for the shipment data from the HDD.

Types Of DRAM (Dynamic RAM)

SDRAM

Main Article: SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory)
Input changes is addressed and processed with SDRAM. It is because of this synchronous interface, which syncs with the computer and its operating system bus enabled by the input clock signal.

DDR SDRAM

Main Article: DDR SDRAM (Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory)
DDR SDRAM is the Integrated Circuit (IC), which stores data in a computer. Clock signal used in DDR SDRAM is more efficient than those used in SDRAM, so that the data transfer is made faster. DDR SDRAM interface uses the so-called double pumping process, which means that data is transferred both to the top and to the bottom edge of the clock signal. Data transfer speeds of DDR SDRAM is 1,600 megabytes per second. It is used in computers and mobile phones.

DDR2 SDRAM

Main Article: DDR2 SDRAM (Double Data Rate two Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory)
DDR2 SDRAM is the successor of the DDR SDRAM. DDR2 SDRAM power consumption is less than its predecessor and has a high speed data bus. the difference between DDR2 SDRAM and DDR SDRAM, the clock speed of its predecessor is the last half of the chip. The maximum speed of data transfer DDR2 SDRAM is 3,200 megabytes per second.

DDR3 SDRAM

Main Article: DDR3 SDRAM (Double Data Rate three Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory)
Compared to its predecessor, DDR3 SDRAM gives a high bandwidth, high data transfer speed etc. The data transfer rate of RAM is 6,400 megabytes per second, is twice that of DDR2 SDRAM. The power consumption of the DDR3 SDRAM is 30% lower than the DDR2 SDRAM.

DDR4 SDRAM

Main Article: DDR4 SDRAM (Double Data Rate four Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory)
This is the bandwidth for the next-generation interface, which is being developed and is expected to be launched in 2012. Some of the expected benefits of DDR4 SDRAM is a high-speed data transfer, low input voltage, high clock frequency range.

RDDRAM

Main Article: RD RAM (Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory)
RDRAM is a type of SDRAM that is known for high latency, heat output, complexity, and performance is low compared with the high price. It is used to control video games and the video card.

PSRAM

PSRAM 7 offers the benefits and functions of the combined RAM DRAM (High Density) and SRAM (ease of use), has a built-in refresh and address-control circuit that is very similar to SRAM, used in embedded systems such as Apple products.

RLDRAM

Type of RAM is mainly used in computer networking and caching applications. Applications involving high-level functions in the operation of RAM is read / write. RLDRAM provides random access to high bandwidth.

EDO DRAM

Main Article: EDO RAM (Extended Data Out RAM)
EDO DRAM can also be called Hyper Page Mode enabled DRAM, providing improved performance by allowing consecutive operations to overlap (overlap) for this facility, a new access cycle can be started even when the output data from the previous cycle active.

SGRAM

Main Article: SGRAM (Synchronous Graphics RAM)
SGRAM is used in the graphics adapter and can open two memory pages at a time. This chip also offers a bit masking and writing blocks. SGRAM is designed for the purpose of accelerating high performance which is mainly used on the video card.

FPM DRAM

Main Article: FPM DRAM (Fast Page Mode DRAM)
With FPM DRAM read and write data is not delayed because of precharge and accessing the row of DRAM. This improves the performance of the device.

RAM on the video or the video RAM (VRAM)

Main Article: VRAM (Video Random Access Memory)
VRAM is computer memory used to store the image data displayed on a computer monitor, which acts as a buffer between the CPU and graphics card. There are two types of VRAM is WRAM, and SGRAM.

WRAM

WRAM working in a dual-ported, which means having a bandwidth of about 25% more than standard VRAM, which aims to reduce the cost.

SGRAM

SGRAM is a type of RAM that is synchronized. This means that the data can be changed in a single operation rather than as a sequence of read, write, and update operations. This allows the background, front, and the image will fill the screen more efficiently.

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